The Trp64Arg variant of the beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) gene is relatively common in Japanese people. We hypothesized that this variant may be associated with obesity and insulin resistance when combined with a westernized lifestyle. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationships between the beta3-AR gene variant and obesity and insulin resistance in Japanese-American men, who are known to have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The subjects were 152 Japanese-American men living in Hawaii, 83 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 40 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 29 with DM. The frequency of the Trp64Arg allele of the beta3-AR gene was 0.18, almost identical to that of the mainland Japanese. The prevalence of the Trp64Arg allele was 30.1% in NGT, 35.0% in IGT, and 41.4% in DM subjects (nonsignificant). The Trp64Arg variant of the beta3-AR gene showed no significant relationship with obesity or insulin resistance in NGT subjects. However, fasting and 2-hour insulin levels and insulin resistance as determined by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) were significantly higher in IGT subjects with the Trp64Arg variant. Although indices of obesity were the same in IGT subjects with and without the Trp64Arg variant, differences in the body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat between NGT and IGT subjects were greater for individuals with the Trp64Arg variant. Thus, there is an association between the Trp64Arg variant of the beta3-AR gene and insulin resistance in Japanese-Americans with IGT.