Emergency department evaluation and treatment of the shoulder and humerus

Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1999 Nov;17(4):859-76, vi. doi: 10.1016/s0733-8627(05)70101-2.


The shoulder girdle is a versatile anatomic structure with a wide range of mobility and function. Its soft tissue and skeletal components are subject to a variety of injuries spanning from overuse syndromes to acute trauma. This article reviews the key historical and physical examination techniques of the shoulder, and special attention is paid to proper imaging in the emergency department, which aids in the diagnosis of specific disorders. This article also reviews the various therapeutic options, including surgery.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bursitis / diagnosis
  • Bursitis / therapy
  • Clavicle / injuries
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Fractures, Bone / diagnosis
  • Fractures, Bone / therapy
  • Humans
  • Humeral Fractures / diagnosis
  • Humeral Fractures / therapy
  • Shoulder Dislocation / therapy
  • Shoulder Impingement Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Shoulder Impingement Syndrome / therapy
  • Shoulder Injuries*
  • Tendinopathy / diagnosis
  • Tendinopathy / therapy