The distribution of the major cytoskeletal components in frontal cryosections of the hippocampal formation of adult male tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) was immunohistochemically investigated by using commercially available antibodies. Actin-immunolabeling was evident in all layers of the dentate gyrus as well as in the regio superior (CA1) and the regio inferior (CA3). Neurofilament 160 was detected only in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and in the axons of the granule cells (mossy fibers). For beta-tubulin, the microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) MAP2AB, MAP2ABC and Tau, immunoreactivity was evident within the granule cells and within the somatodendritic compartment of pyramidal neurons. Granule cells and the somata of the pyramidal neurons were intensely labeled for kinesin. Our findings show the elaborate expression of cytoskeletal proteins in the hippocampal formation of the tree shrew, relatively similar to what is seen in other species but with also some important differences, such as the immunonegativity of the axonal compartment for Tau in the tree shrew, which is contrary to what we see in the mouse (unpublished data). These findings provide useful insights regarding the organization of the hippocampal formation of the tree shrew and are fundamental for further research in this field.