Objective: To report the relative prevalence of various forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) in children with Noonan syndrome (NS) and to describe anatomic characteristics of the subgroup of patients with atrioventricular canal (AVC).
Study design: Phenotypic and cardiologic examinations were performed in 136 patients with NS and CHD evaluated at our hospital from January 1986 to December 1998. Cardiac evaluation included chest x-ray film, electrocardiogram, 2-dimensional and color Doppler echocardiography, cardiac catheterization with angiocardiography, and cardiac surgery.
Results: The CHDs classically reported in NS, including pulmonary stenosis (39%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (10%), atrial septal defect (8%), and tetralogy of Fallot (4%), are well represented in our series; however, aortic coarctation (9%) and anomalies of the mitral valve (6%) may also occur in this syndrome. Moreover, AVC was diagnosed in 21 patients, representing 15% of all CHDs in our series. All patients showed a partial form of AVC, and an associated subaortic stenosis caused by additional anomalies of the mitral valve was detected in 5 of 21 (23.8%) of those patients.
Conclusion: Left-sided lesions, such as aortic coarctation and anomalies of the mitral valve, are not rare in patients with NS and CHD. Moreover, in this syndrome AVC is quite frequent, the partial form is prevalent, and subaortic stenosis caused by additional anomalies of the mitral valve may be present. This information should be taken into consideration during the cardiologic evaluation of children with NS.