An auxin-dependent distal organizer of pattern and polarity in the Arabidopsis root

Cell. 1999 Nov 24;99(5):463-72. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81535-4.


Root formation in plants involves the continuous interpretation of positional cues. Physiological studies have linked root formation to auxins. An auxin response element displays a maximum in the Arabidopsis root and we investigate its developmental significance. Auxin response mutants reduce the maximum or its perception, and interfere with distal root patterning. Polar auxin transport mutants affect its localization and distal pattern. Polar auxin transport inhibitors cause dramatic relocalization of the maximum, and associated changes in pattern and polarity. Auxin application and laser ablations correlate root pattern with a maximum adjacent to the vascular bundle. Our data indicate that an auxin maximum at a vascular boundary establishes a distal organizer in the root.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins*
  • Biological Transport / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cell Communication*
  • Cell Polarity
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Indoleacetic Acids / metabolism*
  • Membrane Transport Proteins*
  • Models, Biological
  • Morphogenesis*
  • Plant Proteins
  • Plant Roots / anatomy & histology
  • Plant Roots / growth & development*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • ARF1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Indoleacetic Acids
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • PIN2 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Plant Proteins
  • Transcription Factors