This is part of the series of practice guidelines commissioned by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) through its Practice Guidelines Committee. The purpose of this guideline is to provide assistance to clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of two specific types of urinary tract infections (UTIs): uncomplicated, acute, symptomatic bacterial cystitis and acute pyelonephritis in women. The guideline does not contain recommendations for asymptomatic bacteriuria, complicated UTIs, Foley catheter-associated infections, UTIs in men or children, or prostatitis. The targeted providers are internists and family practitioners. The targeted groups are immunocompetent women. Criteria are specified for determining whether the inpatient or outpatient setting is appropriate for treatment. Differences from other guidelines written on this topic include use of laboratory criteria for diagnosis and approach to antimicrobial therapy. Panel members represented experts in adult infectious diseases and urology. The guidelines are evidence-based. A standard ranking system is used for the strength of the recommendation and the quality of the evidence cited in the literature reviewed. The document has been subjected to external review by peer reviewers as well as by the Practice Guidelines Committee and was approved by the IDSA Council, the sponsor and supporter of the guideline. The American Urologic Association and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases have endorsed it. An executive summary and tables highlight the major recommendations. Performance measures are described to aid in monitoring compliance with the guideline. The guideline will be listed on the IDSA home page at http://www.idsociety.org It will be evaluated for updating in 2 years.