Is the prevalence of HIV-associated nephropathy decreasing?

Am J Nephrol. 1999;19(6):655-9. doi: 10.1159/000013537.


Initial reports have suggested that approximately 10% of patients with HIV-infection develop HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). It has also been predicted that by the end of the decade, HIVAN is likely to become a third leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African-Americans between the ages of 20-64 years. As the morbidity and mortality from HIV-infection has decreased in the last few years, it is possible that prevalence of HIVAN is also changing. We therefore screened HIV-1-infected patients followed in our hospital for HIVAN. A screening urinalysis was performed in 557 HIV-1-infected adult patients between March and May 1998. Of these, 252 were outpatients and 305 were Texas Department of Criminal Justice inmates (TDCJI). Demographic and laboratory data of these patients was obtained from the HIV patients' database. Fifty percent of the patients were African-American, 36.6% were Caucasian and 12. 7% were Hispanic. The mean age of patients was 37 +/- 8 years. Seventy-nine percent of the patients were males and a history of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) was present in 28%. Twenty-three percent of the patients were concomitantly infected with hepatitis C virus, 4.1% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, and rapid plasma reagin test for syphilis was positive in 9.1%. In 38 patients who had more than 100 mg/dl (2+) proteins on screening urinalysis, total urinary proteins were quantitated by collecting 24 h urine specimens. Fifteen of these patients had urinary proteins more than 1.5 g/day (12 patients >3.5 g/24 h and 3 patients >1.5 g/24 h). A renal biopsy was done in 14 of these patients and clinical diagnosis of HIVAN was made in one patient who refused biopsy. Renal biopsies revealed HIVAN [9], diabetic nephropathy [2], membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis [2], Fibrillary glomerulonephritis [1]. All 10 patients (5 TDCJI and 5 outpatients) with HIVAN were African-American. Two of these 10 patients had a history of IVDA and another two were concomitantly infected with hepatitis C virus. The plasma viral load (Pvl) and total CD4 count was not different in patients with or without HIVAN [(Pvl log 10.05 +/- 1.39 vs. 9.9 +/- 2.18 copies/ml, p = 0.78) (CD4: 187 +/- 192 vs. 288 +/- 249 cells/microl, p = 1.17) mean +/- SD]. We conclude that in our HIV-infected population HIVAN exclusively affected African-Americans and the prevalence in them was 3.5%.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy / epidemiology*
  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy / immunology
  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy / pathology
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biopsy
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Texas / epidemiology
  • Viral Load