In recent years, percutaneous placement of stents has been used as an alternative to surgery or balloon angioplasty for the treatment of adults with peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis. This therapy has also been proposed for children, but questions still remain about its indications in this group of patients. We describe here the results of intravascular placement of stents in a group of 29 patients, with a mean age of 12+/-7 (range 3-31) years and weighing 35+/-19 (range 11-74) kg. All were affected by postsurgical or congenital isolated pulmonary arterial stenosis, and have now been followed for 38+/-19 (range 6-65) months. The early hemodynamic results have been excellent, with a significant reduction of the pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, the systolic pressure gradient, and the ratio of systolic pressures in the pulmonary and systemic circuits, and with a significant increase of the diameter of the stented vessels in all the patients. Of the 29 patients, 24 have been recatheterized 18+/-10 months after the procedure, demonstrating the stability of the results, with a low incidence of late restenosis, this seen in only 1 patient (2%). Lung perfusion scanning, performed in 17 patients each year after the follow-up catheterization, has showed that the results are maintained at long-term follow-up (51+/-9 months).