An immunohistochemical study on a case of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-producing gall-bladder carcinoma

Pathol Int. 1999 Nov;49(11):1010-3. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1827.1999.00970.x.


Primary gall-bladder carcinoma producing granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) is extremely rare. Only four cases, histologically investigated, have been reported to date in the English literature. We report a case of a 48-year-old female with primary gall-bladder carcinoma, associating with leukocytosis (15 700/mm3) and a high level of serum GCSF (54.0 pg/mL). The tumor was, histologically, a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with marked interspersed neutrophils invading into the primary tumor itself and the right lobe of the liver. Tumor cells distinctly showed positive immunoreaction in the cytoplasm with anti-GCSF antibody, and in the nucleus for anti-p53 antibody. After surgery, the leukocytosis and serum level of GCSF began to decrease. These findings confirmed the present case of GCSF-producing gall-bladder carcinoma, exhibiting leukocytosis. A total of five cases, including our case, reported as a GCSF-producing gall-bladder carcinoma were clinicopathologically reviewed.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / metabolism*
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Female
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / biosynthesis*
  • Humans
  • Leukocytosis / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor