Angiogenins are proteins in the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily that utilize their ribonuclease activity to induce formation of new blood vessels. Recently we identified a new member of the angiogenin gene family, mouse angiogenin-3, by virtue of its transcriptional activation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts coincident with transformation by the chimeric leukemia oncogene, E2a-Pbx1. Here we have isolated the cDNA encoding mouse angiogenin-3 and used it to produce the protein in E. coli. We demonstrate that mouse angiogenin-3 is a ribonuclease whose activity and specificity towards tRNA and dinucleotide substrates differ from those of mouse angiogenin or of mouse angiogenin-related protein, a non-angiogenic factor. Mouse angiogenin-3 induced angiogenesis in both the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay and the rat cremaster muscle. Electron microscopy revealed that endothelial cells within vessels induced by both mouse angiogenin-3 and mouse angiogenin contain fenestrations similar to those observed in endothelial cells from neovasculature induced by vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Mouse angiogenin-3 also induced other molecular events typical of rapidly proliferating endothelial cells, such as increases in rough endoplasmic reticulum, polysomes, and mitochondria.