Simultaneous determination of seven penicillins in muscle, liver and kidney tissues from cattle and pigs by a multiresidue high-performance liquid chromatographic method

J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999 Nov 12;734(2):307-18. doi: 10.1016/s0378-4347(99)00389-8.


A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for determination of amoxicillin, penicillin G (benzylpenicillin), ampicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, nafcillin and dicloxacillin in muscle, liver and kidney tissues of pigs and cattle. The compounds were extracted in aqueous solution by precipitation of organic materials with a mixture of sulphuric acid and sodium tungstate. The extract was cleaned up by SPE on a divinylbenzene-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone polymeric sorbent. Further clean-up was performed by liquid-liquid partition with diethyl ether. The extract was derivatised with benzoic anhydride and 1,2,4-triazole mercury (II) reagent. Chromatography was performed by reversed-phase gradient HPLC on a C18 column with ultraviolet detection at 323 nm. The limits of detection estimated by a conservative model were in the range 8.9-11.1 microg/kg for amoxicillin, penicillin G, ampicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin and nafcillin and 18.3-20.9 microg/kg for dicloxacillin. The mean recovery range was 66-77% for amoxicillin, 73-75% for penicillin G, 81-82% for ampicillin, 73-76% for oxacillin, 74-75% for cloxacillin, 66-72% for nafcillin and 58-65% for dicloxacillin.

MeSH terms

  • Amoxicillin / analysis
  • Ampicillin / analysis
  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Chemical Precipitation
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Cloxacillin / analysis
  • Dicloxacillin / analysis
  • Drug Stability
  • Kidney / chemistry*
  • Liver / chemistry*
  • Muscles / chemistry*
  • Nafcillin / analysis
  • Oxacillin / analysis
  • Penicillin G / analysis
  • Penicillins / analysis*
  • Quality Control
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sulfuric Acids
  • Swine
  • Tungsten Compounds


  • Penicillins
  • Sulfuric Acids
  • Tungsten Compounds
  • Nafcillin
  • sodium tungstate(VI)
  • Ampicillin
  • Amoxicillin
  • Dicloxacillin
  • sulfuric acid
  • Cloxacillin
  • Penicillin G
  • Oxacillin