Growth manipulation in fish is one of the targets of gene transfer experiments. The aim is to produce strains with improved growth performance. The transfer of growth hormone transgenes has been successful in many fish species. Now detailed knowledge of the molecular events that control growth in fish is necessary in order to efficiently manipulate this process. We have selected tilapia for our studies because these species are suitable for basic research as well as for the development of improved strains for aquaculture. Here we review the results of basic and applied research in the field of growth control and manipulation in tilapia. Our experiments produced new scientific results on growth control in tilapia. These results were used to develop a new aquacultured line with improved growth performance. Many of these results are probably applicable to other teleosts.