Silencing of metallothionein-I gene in mouse lymphosarcoma cells by methylation

Oncogene. 1999 Nov 4;18(46):6287-95. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1203004.


Metallothionein-I (MT-I) gene is silenced by methylation of CpG islands in mouse lymphosarcoma P1798 cells but not in the thymus, the cell type from which the tumor was derived. Bisulfite genomic sequencing revealed that all 21 CpG dinucleotides present within -216 bp to +1 bp with respect to transcription start site are methylated in the tumor cell line, but none is methylated in the thymus. The lymphosarcoma cells induced MT-I in response to heavy metals only after demethylation with 5-azacytidine (5-AsaC). The electrophoretic mobility shift assay using specific oligonucleotide probes showed that the key transcription factors regulating MT-I gene (e.g., MTF-1, Sp 1 and MLTF/USF) are active in P1798 cells. In vivo footprinting of the proximal promoter region showed that none of the metal regulatory elements (MREs) or MLTF/USF are occupied in response to heavy metals. Demethylation of the lymphosarcoma cells with 5-AzaC resulted in constitutive footprinting at MLTF/ARE, and zinc-inducible footprinting at MRE-c, MRE-d and MRE-e sites. Demethylation of just 10-20% of the CpG islands was sufficient to render the gene inducible by cadmium or zinc. The MT-I induction persisted in the cancer cells for several generations even after withdrawal of 5-AzaC from the culture medium.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology
  • Azacitidine / pharmacology
  • Base Sequence
  • CpG Islands
  • DNA Footprinting
  • DNA Methylation
  • DNA, Neoplasm / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic* / drug effects
  • Gene Silencing*
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / metabolism
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology*
  • Metallothionein / biosynthesis
  • Metallothionein / genetics*
  • Metals, Heavy / pharmacology
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Neoplasm Proteins / genetics*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Thymus Gland / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects


  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • Metals, Heavy
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Metallothionein
  • Azacitidine