Human neoplasms are often caused by cumulative alterations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. By identifying the early genetic changes involved in tumorigenesis, one can develop strategies to prevent and detect cancers at early stages, when treatment is most effective. C-CAM1, a cell-adhesion molecule (CAM) isoform (I), was recently shown to play a critical role in prostate cancer initiation and progression. Loss of C-CAM1 expression occurs early in the development of prostate cancer, suggesting that C-CAM1 may help maintain the differentiated state of the prostate epithelium. Reintroduction of C-CAM1 into cancer cells can reverse their cancerous growth. Thus, the C-CAM1 molecule itself or drugs that increase C-CAM1 expression are promising agents for prostate cancer treatment. The mechanisms by which C-CAM1 suppresses tumorigenesis are different from those of p53 and Rb. Therefore, C-CAM1 therapy is a new form of prostate cancer treatment. To exploit C-CAM1's therapeutic potential, a human C-CAM1 adenovirus expression vector (Ad-hu-C-CAM1) has been used to treat prostate tumor xenografts in nude mice. The preliminary results have shown great promise. In addition, while C-CAM gene therapy may have immediate application in prostate cancer treatment, the knowledge to be learned from mechanistic studies of C-CAM1-mediated tumor suppression may also help us design better strategies for prevention and treatment for prostate cancer.