A 4-year-old boy showed two episodes of encephalitis/encephalopathy involving disturbed consciousness, convulsion, and paresis associated with the elevated levels of protein and myelin basic protein of the cerebrospinal fluid. MRI studies of the brain revealed symmetrical lesions in the brain stem and thalami at the first episode, and additional lesions were found in the cerebellum involving both the gray and white matter in the second episode. The intensities of MRI lesions were low in T I and high in T2. These episodes were followed by an elevation of the anti-viral antibody titers, for influenza A virus during the first episode and for adenovirus during the second. In the second episode, intravenous methylprednisolone therapy resulted in rapid improvement of his neurological signs.