Constitutive activation of transcription and binding of coactivator by estrogen-related receptors 1 and 2

Mol Endocrinol. 1999 Dec;13(12):2151-62. doi: 10.1210/mend.13.12.0381.


In this report, we demonstrate that, in contrast to most previously characterized nuclear receptors, hERR1 and hERR2 (human estrogen receptor-related protein 1 and -2) are constitutive activators of the classic estrogen response element (ERE) as well as the palindromic thyroid hormone response element (TRE(pal)) but not the glucocorticoid response element (GRE). This intrinsically activated state of hERR1 and hERR2 resides in the ligand-binding domains of the two genes and is transferable to a heterologous receptor. In addition, we show that members of the p160 family of nuclear receptor coactivators, ACTR (activator of thyroid and retinoic acid receptors), GRIP1 (glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1), and SRC-1 (steroid receptor coactivator 1), potentiate the transcriptional activity by hERR1 and hERR2 in mammalian cells, and that both orphan receptors bind the coactivators in a ligand-independent manner. Together, these results suggest that hERR1 and hERR2 activate gene transcription through a mechanism different from most of the previously characterized steroid hormone receptors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acetyltransferases / metabolism
  • Acetyltransferases / pharmacology
  • Cell Line
  • Drug Synergism
  • Estrogens / pharmacology
  • HeLa Cells
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • Humans
  • Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1
  • Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism*
  • Response Elements
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins*
  • Thyroid Hormones / pharmacology
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcription Factors / pharmacology*
  • Transcription, Genetic*


  • ERRalpha estrogen-related receptor
  • ESRRB protein, human
  • Estrogens
  • NCOA2 protein, human
  • Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Thyroid Hormones
  • Transcription Factors
  • Acetyltransferases
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • NCOA1 protein, human
  • Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1