Objective: To investigate the penetration of levofloxacin, an optical S-(-)isomer of ofloxacin, into the aqueous and vitreous humor after oral administration.
Design: Randomized, clinical trial comparing tissue levels of levofloxacin after one or two doses 12 hours apart.
Participants: Forty-five patients undergoing initial vitrectomy between February 1997 and June 1997 at the UIC Eye Center.
Methods: Aqueous, vitreous, and serum samples were obtained and later analyzed from 45 patients after oral administration of 1 500-mg tablet (group 1, 22 patients) or 2 500-mg tablets (group 2, 23 patients) 12 hours apart before surgery.
Main outcome measures: Aqueous, vitreous, and serum concentrations of levofloxacin (micrograms/milliliter).
Results: Group 1 achieved mean aqueous, vitreous, and serum levels of 0.59 +/- 0.48 microg/ml, 0.32 +/- 0.34 microg/ml, and 4.34 +/- 3.59 microg/ml, respectively. Group 2 achieved mean aqueous, vitreous, and serum levels of 1.90 +/- 0.97 microg/ml, 2.39 +/- 0.70 microg/ml, and 8.02 +/- 3.14 microg/ml.
Conclusions: Mean inhibitory aqueous and vitreous MIC90 levels were achieved against a majority of ocular pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae (vitreous), Bacillus cereus (vitreous), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and most gram-negative aerobic organisms except Pseudomonas aeruginosa after two doses given 12 hours apart. Mean MIC90 levels were obtained in the vitreous for a majority of pathogens responsible for traumatic, postoperative, or bleb-related endophthalmitis.