Automated scanning laser ophthalmoscope image montages of retinal diseases

Ophthalmology. 1999 Dec;106(12):2296-300. doi: 10.1016/S0161-6420(99)90529-8.


Purpose: To generate wide-field automated seamless retinal montage images.

Design: Prospective, observational, case series study.

Participants: Eighteen eyes of 14 patients were studied.

Intervention: A digital scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), the Heidelberg Retina Angiograph (HRA), was used to obtain overlapping images of the fundus during fluorescein angiograms, indocyanine green angiograms, or monochromatic retinal imaging using infrared or green light. Software was used to generate seamless montages.

Main outcome measures: Ability to electronically synthesize retinal montages. Four laser wavelengths were used. The wide-field degrees, vertical and horizontal number of pixels, and diameter of the individual images were measured.

Results: High-resolution (pixel size, 10 microm), wide-field, typically 100 degrees to 140 degrees, digital montages of the postequatorial retina can be generated from HRA images.

Conclusions: The software automatically and rapidly aligned the retinal blood vessels and synthesized a montage of the entire fundus that could then be overlaid on images taken at different times to illustrate change. These montages will allow improved ability to understand and follow retinal diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Humans
  • Indocyanine Green
  • Lasers*
  • Middle Aged
  • Ophthalmoscopes
  • Ophthalmoscopy / methods*
  • Retinal Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Retinal Vessels / pathology*


  • Indocyanine Green