IMAGe, a new clinical association of intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Dec;84(12):4335-40. doi: 10.1210/jcem.84.12.6186.


We report three boys with adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and additional findings that represent a new syndrome, IMAGe: Intrauterine growth retardation, Metaphyseal dysplasia, AHC, and Genital anomalies. Each presented shortly after birth with growth retardation and severe adrenal insufficiency. Each of the three patients had mild dysmorphic features, bilateral cryptorchidism, a small penis, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Skeletal surveys revealed metaphyseal dysplasia in all three and epiphyseal dysplasia in two. The patients had documented or suspected hypercalciuria and/or hypercalcemia, resulting in nephrocalcinosis in one and in prenatal liver and spleen calcifications in another. AHC presents most often either as an isolated abnormality, caused by mutations in the DAX1 gene, or as part of an Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome, caused by a deletion of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy, glycerol kinase, and DAX1 genes. All three patients with the IMAGe association had normal creatine kinase levels and no evidence of glycerol kinase deficiency. Sequence analysis of DNA from these patients revealed no mutation in the DAX1- or steroidogenic factor-1-coding sequences, nor was a deletion of DAX1 detected. Identification of the molecular basis of the IMAGe association will give new insight into the pathogenesis of this syndromic relationship involving bone, adrenal cortical, and pituitary development.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Insufficiency / complications*
  • Adrenal Insufficiency / congenital*
  • Bone Diseases, Developmental / complications*
  • Cryptorchidism / complications
  • Fetal Growth Retardation / complications*
  • Genitalia, Male / abnormalities*
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism / complications
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Karyotyping
  • Male
  • Penis / abnormalities
  • Syndrome