Coeliac disease (CD) is a multifactorial disease for which there is an intensive search for genetic risk factors. Some authors found an association between the CTLA-4 region and CD. In the present work, we investigate the possible implication of the CTLA-4 region as a genetic risk factor for CD, through two statistical approaches: the maximum likelihood score (MLS) test in a large Italian sample of affected sib-pairs using polymorphic genetic markers on chromosome 2, and the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) in continental Italian and Tunisian families using the CTLA-4 exon 1 49 A/G polymorphism. None of these approaches provides evidence for linkage or association between the CTLA-4 region and CD. This might result from a difference in the CTLA-4 region from population to population, either in its involvement as a risk factor or in the strength of linkage disequilibrium.