SMAP-29 is a cathelicidin-derived peptide deduced from sheep myeloid mRNA. The C-terminally amidated form of this peptide was chemically synthesized and shown to exert a potent antimicrobial activity. Antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates highly susceptible to this peptide include MRSA and VREF isolates, that are a major worldwide problem, and mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with chronic respiratory inflammation in CF patients. In addition, SMAP-29 is also active against fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from immunocompromised patients. SMAP-29 causes significant morphological alterations of the bacterial surfaces, as shown by scanning electron microscopy, and is also hemolytic against human, but not sheep erythrocytes. Its potent antimicrobial activity suggests that this peptide is an excellent candidate as a lead compound for the development of novel antiinfective agents.