Design, synthesis, and evaluations of substituted 3-[(3- or 4-carboxyethylpyrrol-2-yl)methylidenyl]indolin-2-ones as inhibitors of VEGF, FGF, and PDGF receptor tyrosine kinases

J Med Chem. 1999 Dec 16;42(25):5120-30. doi: 10.1021/jm9904295.


Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been implicated as therapeutic targets for the treatment of human diseases including cancers, inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases including arterial restenosis, and fibrotic diseases of the lung, liver, and kidney. Three classes of 3-substituted indolin-2-ones containing propionic acid functionality attached to the pyrrole ring at the C-3 position of the core have been identified as catalytic inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) RTKs. Some of the compounds were found to inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity associated with isolated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) [fetal liver tyrosine kinase 1 (Flk-1)/kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR)], fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF-R), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R) tyrosine kinase with IC(50) values at nanomolar level. Thus, compound 1 showed inhibition against VEGF-R2 (Flk-1/KDR) and FGF-R1 tyrosine kinase activity with IC(50) values of 20 and 30 nM, respectively, while compound 16f inhibited the PDGF-R tyrosine kinase activity with IC(50) value of 10 nM. Structural models and structure-activity relationship analysis of these compounds for the target receptors are discussed. The cellular activities of these compounds were profiled using cellular proliferation assays as measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Specific and potent inhibition of cell growth was observed for some of these compounds. These data provide evidence that these compounds can be used to inhibit the function of these target receptors.

MeSH terms

  • Drug Design*
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / metabolism
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemical synthesis*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Indoles / chemical synthesis*
  • Indoles / chemistry
  • Indoles / pharmacology*
  • Lymphokines / metabolism
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Molecular Structure
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors


  • Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Indoles
  • Lymphokines
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases