Imaging and therapeutic approach of hemangiomas and vascular malformations in the pediatric age group

Pediatr Radiol. 1999 Dec;29(12):879-93. doi: 10.1007/s002470050718.


Terminology regarding the vascular lesions of the soft tissues remains confusing. A single classification is necessary in order to decide on the proper investigation and the best treatment. At the Workshop on Vascular Anomalies in Rome in June 1996, the membership accepted the Mulliken and Glowacki classification, which differentiates vascular lesions into vascular tumors, including hemangiomas and vascular malformations. At Sainte-Justine, we have set up a multidisciplinary clinic for the discussion of problem patients with vascular anomalies, both in terms of diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we present our experience regarding the classification, the imaging modalities and the treatment of vascular anomalies. In our experience, Doppler ultrasound should be the initial imaging modality for recognizing vascular tumors from vascular malformations. CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging is best to evaluate the extent of the lesions prior to treatment. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to establish a correct diagnosis and define accordingly the appropriate treatment and follow-up.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arteriovenous Malformations / classification
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnosis*
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / therapy
  • Child
  • Hemangioma / classification
  • Hemangioma / diagnosis*
  • Hemangioma / therapy
  • Hemangioma, Cavernous / classification
  • Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis
  • Hemangioma, Cavernous / therapy
  • Humans
  • Lymphangioma / classification
  • Lymphangioma / diagnosis*
  • Lymphangioma / therapy
  • Veins / abnormalities