The improvement in the survival rate of infants born at the limit of viability, i.e. < 26 weeks of gestational age, raises concern about the risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The relevance of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), which is the most frequent cerebral lesion diagnosed in extremely low birth weight neonates, cannot then be underestimated. Pharmacological interventions designed to prevent the occurrence of IVH and its complications have not been entirely conclusive. The understanding of pathogenetic factors involved in the genesis of IVH is the key to planning of new strategies and meanwhile of implementing care guidelines aimed at its prevention.