The complete or almost complete nucleotide sequences were determined for the two RNAs of three different sources of a new furovirus which mainly infects rye and for which the name Soil-borne rye mosaic furovirus (SBRMV) is proposed. The genome organization of this virus is virtually identical to that of Soil-borne wheat mosaic furovirus (SBWMV). However, SBRMV and SBWMV differ considerably in the nucleotide sequences of their genomes and in the derived amino acid sequences of their putative gene products. The sequences of the three sources of SBRMV (two from rye and one from wheat) differ between each other in various parts of their genomes by 1% to 10%. Larger differences were found in the readthrough part of the coat protein readthrough protein. There are no indications that the relationship of the C source from wheat to the other two sources from rye is more distant than the relationship between the two sources from rye. The 3'UTRs of both SBRMV RNAs are remarkable in having a predicted upstream pseudoknot domain (UPD) with seven pseudoknots. The same number was also predicted for the UPD of SBWMV RNA 1 whereas the much shorter UDP of SBWMV RNA 2 may form only four pseudoknots.