LKPNM: a prodrug-type ACE-inhibitory peptide derived from fish protein

Immunopharmacology. 1999 Oct 15;44(1-2):123-7. doi: 10.1016/s0162-3109(99)00118-6.


It has been previously documented that the thermolysin-digest of "Katsuo-bushi", a Japanese traditional food processed from dried bonito possesses potent inhibitory activity against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). The present authors isolated eight kinds of ACE-inhibitory peptides from it. Of these isolated peptides, LKPNM (IC50 = 2.4 microM) was found to be hydrolyzed by ACE to produce LKP (IC50 = 0.32 microM) with 8-fold higher ACE-inhibitory activity relative to the parent peptide or LKPNM, suggesting that LKPNM can be regarded as a prodrug-type ACE-inhibitory peptide. For assessment of relative antihypertensive activities of LKPNM and LKP to that of captopril, they were orally administered to SHR rats to monitor time-course changes of blood pressures, whereby it was evidenced that both LKPNM and captopril showed maximal decrease of blood pressure 4 h after oral administration and their efficacies lasted until 6 h post-administration. In sharp contrast, however, maximal reduction of blood pressure occurred as early as 2 h after administration of LKP. Minimum effective doses of LKPNM, LKP and captopril were 8, 2.25 and 1.25 mg/kg, respectively. When compared on molar basis, antihypertensive activities of LKPNM and LKP accounted for 66% and 91% relative to that of captopril, respectively, whereas in vitro ACE-inhibitory activities of LKPNM and LKP were no more than 0.92% and 7.73% compared with that of captopril (IC50 = 0.022 microM). It is of interest to note that both of these peptides exert remarkably higher antihypertensive activities in vivo despite weaker in vitro ACE-inhibitory effects, which was ascertained by using captopril as the reference drug.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / metabolism
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Antihypertensive Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antihypertensive Agents / metabolism
  • Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology
  • Captopril / administration & dosage
  • Chickens
  • Fish Products / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Muscle Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Muscle Proteins / metabolism
  • Muscle Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Oligopeptides / administration & dosage
  • Oligopeptides / metabolism
  • Oligopeptides / pharmacology*
  • Prodrugs / administration & dosage
  • Prodrugs / metabolism
  • Prodrugs / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred SHR
  • Thermolysin / metabolism


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Muscle Proteins
  • Oligopeptides
  • Prodrugs
  • Captopril
  • Thermolysin