Regulation of metallothionein gene expression by oxidative stress and metal ions

Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jan 1;59(1):95-104. doi: 10.1016/s0006-2952(99)00301-9.


The metallothioneins (MT) are small, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in an array of protective stress responses. Although a single essential function of MT has not been demonstrated, MT of higher eukaryotes evolved as a mechanism to regulate zinc levels and distribution within cells and organisms. These proteins can also protect against some toxic metals and oxidative stress-inducing agents. In mice, among the four known MT genes, the MT-I and -II genes are most widely expressed. Transcription of these genes is rapidly and dramatically up-regulated in response to zinc and cadmium, as well as in response to agents which cause oxidative stress and/or inflammation. The six zinc-finger metal-responsive transcription factor MTF-1 plays a central role in transcriptional activation of the MT-I gene in response to metals and oxidative stress. Mutation of the MTF-1 gene abolishes these responses, and MTF-1 is induced to bind to the metal response elements in proximal MT promoter in cells treated with zinc or during oxidative stress. The exact molecular mechanisms of action of MTF-1 are not fully understood. Our studies suggest that the DNA-binding activity of MTF-1 in vivo and in vitro is reversibly activated by zinc interactions with the zinc-finger domain. This reflects heterogeneity in the structure and function of the six zinc fingers. We hypothesize that MTF-1 functions as a sensor of free zinc pools in the cell. Changes in free zinc may occur in response to chemically diverse inducers. MTF-1 also exerts effects on MT-I gene transcription which are independent of a large increase in MTF-1 DNA-binding activity. For example, cadmium, which has little effect on the DNA-binding activity of MTF-1 in vivo or in vitro, is a more potent inducer of MT gene expression than is zinc. The basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein, USF (upstream stimulatory factor family), also plays a role in regulating transcription of the mouse MT-I gene in response to cadmium or H2O2. Expression of dominant negative USF-1 or deletion of its binding site from the proximal promoter attenuates induction of the mouse MT-I gene. USF apparently functions in this context by interacting with as yet unidentified proteins which bind to an antioxidant response element which overlaps the USF-binding site (USF/ARE). Interestingly, this composite element does not participate in the induction of MT-I gene transcription by zinc or redox-cycling quinones. Thus, regulation of the mouse MT-I gene by metals and oxidative stress involves multiple signaling pathways which depend on the species of metal ion and the nature of the oxidative stress.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cadmium / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins*
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Metallothionein / genetics*
  • Metallothionein / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Upstream Stimulatory Factors
  • Zinc / metabolism*


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Upstream Stimulatory Factors
  • Usf1 protein, mouse
  • transcription factor MTF-1
  • Cadmium
  • Metallothionein
  • Zinc