Anti-androgens and other hormonal therapies for prostate cancer

Urology. 1999 Dec;54(6A Suppl):15-8. doi: 10.1016/s0090-4295(99)00449-5.


Many men who show evidence of a progression of prostate cancer by rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or other symptoms are treated with anti-androgens. Anti-androgen withdrawal represents the first line of treatment after failure of hormonal manipulation. Flutamide is an approved anti-androgen that has been incorporated in many of the combined androgen blockade studies. Bicalutamide is also a nonsteroidal anti-androgen that offers the advantages of reduced dosage amounts and reduction in side effects. Additionally, there are a variety of therapeutic agents that can suppress adrenal secretion of androgens. The most promising of these agents include aminoglutethamide, ketoconazole, and corticosteroids, with an expected response rate of 10% to 15%. Studies have shown that some patients may respond to an anti-estrogen such as tamoxifen. There are a variety of therapeutic treatment options available for patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer. However, quality-of-life issues are becoming increasingly important and should be incorporated into clinical trial endpoints.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Androgens / blood*
  • Androgens / metabolism
  • Anilides / therapeutic use
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood
  • Flutamide / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / blood
  • Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy*
  • Nitriles
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • Tosyl Compounds


  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Androgens
  • Anilides
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Nitriles
  • Tosyl Compounds
  • Tamoxifen
  • Flutamide
  • bicalutamide
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen