ADP is a key agonist in hemostasis and thrombosis. ADP-induced platelet activation involves the purinergic P2Y(1) receptor, which is responsible for shape change through intracellular calcium mobilization. This process also depends on an unidentified P2 receptor (P2cyc) that leads to adenylyl cyclase inhibition and promotes the completion and amplification of the platelet response. P2Y(1)-null mice were generated to define the role of the P2Y(1) receptor and to determine whether the unidentified P2cyc receptor is distinct from P2Y(1). These mice are viable with no apparent abnormalities affecting their development, survival, reproduction, or the morphology of their platelets, and the platelet count in these animals is identical to that of wild-type mice. However, platelets from P2Y(1)-deficient mice are unable to aggregate in response to usual concentrations of ADP and display impaired aggregation to other agonists, while high concentrations of ADP induce platelet aggregation without shape change. In addition, ADP-induced inhibition of adenylyl cyclase still occurs, demonstrating the existence of an ADP receptor distinct from P2Y(1). P2Y(1)-null mice have no spontaneous bleeding tendency but are resistant to thromboembolism induced by intravenous injection of ADP or collagen and adrenaline. Hence, the P2Y(1) receptor plays an essential role in thrombotic states and represents a potential target for antithrombotic drugs.