The distribution of cellulosomal cohesin domains among the sequences currently compiled in various sequence databases was investigated. Two cohesin domains were detected in two consecutive open reading frames (ORFs) of the recently sequenced genome of the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Otherwise, no cohesin-like sequence could be detected in organisms other than those of the Eubacteria. One of the A. fulgidus cohesin-containing ORFs also harbored a dockerin domain, but the additional modular portions of both genes are undefined, both with respect to sequence homology and function. It is currently unclear what function(s) the putative cohesin and dockerin-containing proteins play in the life cycle of this organism. In particular, since A. fulgidus contains no known glycosyl hydrolase gene, the presence of a cellulosome can be excluded. The results suggest that cohesin and dockerin signature sequences cannot be used alone for the definitive identification of cellulosomes in genomes.