Aims: The aim of this open-label, placebo-controlled, randomized, four-period crossover study was to determine the effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single dose of dofetilide.
Methods: Twenty healthy male subjects received 100 or 400 mg twice daily of cimetidine, 150 mg twice daily of ranitidine, or placebo for 4 days. On the second day, a single oral 500 microg dose of dofetilide was administered immediately after the morning doses of cimetidine, ranitidine, or placebo. Treatment periods were separated by 1-2 weeks. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma and urinary dofetilide concentrations; prolongation of the QTc interval was determined from three-lead electrocardiograms.
Results: Ranitidine did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of dofetilide; however, a dose-dependent increase in exposure to dofetilide was observed with cimetidine. When dofetilide was administered with 100 and 400 mg of cimetidine, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of dofetilide increased by 11% and 48% and the maximum plasma dofetilide concentration increased by 11% and 29%, respectively. The respective cimetidine doses reduced renal clearance of dofetilide by 13% and 33% and nonrenal clearance by 5% and 21%. Dofetilide-induced prolongation of the QTc interval was enhanced by cimetidine; the mean maximum change in QTc interval from baseline was increased by 22% and 33% with 100 and 400 mg of cimetidine, respectively. However, the relationship between the prolongation of the QTc interval and plasma dofetilide concentrations was unaffected by cimetidine or ranitidine; a 1 ng ml-1 increase in plasma dofetilide concentration produced a 17-19 ms prolongation of the QTc interval. Dofetilide was well tolerated, with no treatment-related adverse events or laboratory abnormalities.
Conclusions: These results suggest that cimetidine increased dofetilide exposure by inhibiting renal tubular dofetilide secretion, whereas ranitidine did not. This effect is not an H2-receptor antagonist class effect but is specific to cimetidine. If therapy with an H2-receptor antagonist is required, it is recommended that cimetidine at all doses be avoided; since ranitidine has no effect on dofetilide pharmacokinetics or prolongation of the QTc interval, it can be seen as a suitable alternative.