Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) deficiencies are common disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. The CPT system is made up of two separate proteins located in the outer- (CPT1) and inner- (CPT2) mitochondrial membranes. While CPT2 is a ubiquitous protein, two tissue-specific CPT1 isoforms-the so-called "liver" (L) and "muscle" (M) CPT1s-have been shown to exist. Amino acid and cDNA nucleotide sequences have been identified for all of these proteins. L-CPT1 deficiency (13 families reported) presents as recurrent attacks of fasting hypoketotic hypoglycemia. Two L-CPT1 mutations have been reported to date. M-CPT1 deficiency has not been hitherto identified. CPT2 deficiency has several clinical presentations. The "benign" adult form (more than 150 families reported) is characterized by episodes of rhabdomyolysis triggered by prolonged exercise. The prevalent S113L mutation is found in about 50% of mutant alleles. The infantile-type CPT2 deficiency (10 families reported) presents as severe attacks of hypoketotic hypoglycemia, occasionally associated with cardiac damage commonly responsible for sudden death before 1 year of age. In addition to these symptoms, features of brain and kidney dysorganogenesis are frequently seen in the neonatal-onset CPT2 deficiency (13 families reported), almost always lethal during the first month of life. More than 25 CPT2 mutations (private missense or truncating mutations) have hitherto been detected. Treatment is based upon avoidance of fasting and/or exercise, a low-fat diet enriched with medium chain triglycerides and carnitine ("severe" CPT2 deficiency). Prenatal diagnosis may be offered for pregnancies at a 1/4 risk of infantile/severe-type CPT2 deficiency.
Copyright 1999 Academic Press.