The PEA15 gene encoding a protein kinase C substrate is widely expressed, and its overexpression may contribute to impairment of glucose uptake. PEA15 is located within a region on human 1q linked with type 2 diabetes in both Pima Indians and Caucasians. To assess the potential contribution of genetic alterations within this locus to disease susceptibility in the Pimas, we have investigated its genomic sequences. The PEA15 locus is composed of four exons spanning approximately 10.2kb of genomic DNA, flanked upstream by an potentially expressed Alu element, downstream by the H326 gene, and is located within 250kb of KCNJ9. We also sequenced over 2kb of the promoter region and identified various motifs analogous to known transcription factor binding sites. By analysis of 22 Pimas, including 13 diabetic subjects, we detected four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-coding regions of PEA15, including three frequent variants that were in allelic disequilibrium, and one variant found only in a single Pima. The three SNPs were not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in 50 affected and 50 control Pimas (p=0.12-0.17), and we conclude that mutations in this gene probably do not contribute significantly to disease susceptibility in this Native American tribe. However, knowledge of the genomic structure of PEA15 provides the basis for similar systematic examinations of this candidate locus in relation to type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders in other populations.