Immune reconstitution in the first year of potent antiretroviral therapy and its relationship to virologic response

J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan;181(1):358-63. doi: 10.1086/315171.


The effects of 1 year of zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir treatment on immune reconstitution were evaluated in 34 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. After 48 weeks of therapy, 20 (59%) subjects had <100 copies HIV RNA/mL. CD4+ T cells increased from a median of 192/mm3 at baseline to 362/mm3 at week 48. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to Candida normalized within 12 weeks, but responses to HIV and tetanus remained depressed throughout therapy. Alloantigen responses increased within 12 weeks and then declined to baseline levels. Recovery of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses occurred after 12 weeks for Candida and after 48 weeks for mumps. The magnitude of virologic suppression was correlated with numeric increases in CD4+ T cells, but not with measures of functional immune reconstitution. Plasma virus suppression <100 copies/mL was not significantly correlated with increases in CD4+ T cells or functional immune reconstitution.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Candida / immunology
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity, Delayed
  • Immune System / drug effects*
  • Lamivudine / therapeutic use
  • Mumps virus / immunology
  • RNA, Viral / blood
  • Ritonavir / therapeutic use
  • Zidovudine / therapeutic use


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • RNA, Viral
  • Lamivudine
  • Zidovudine
  • Ritonavir