['Urinary tract infections'--revised CBO guideline. Dutch Institute for Quality Assurance]

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1999 Dec 4;143(49):2461-5.
[Article in Dutch]


Recently the 'Kwaliteitsinstituut voor de gezondheidszorg CBO' (Dutch Institute++ for Health Care Improvement) published revised guidelines on urinary tract infections. In children less than one year old clinical signs of urinary tract infection are non-specific and the diagnosis should be ruled out by laboratory investigations: a nitrite test, followed by inspection of the urinary sediment for leucocytes and bacteria if the test is negative. If one of the investigations is positive an urinary culture is made and antimicrobial therapy is started as for pyelonephritis. The child should be referred to a paediatrician to examine the urinary tract for anatomical abnormalities with a view to possible preventive measures regarding renal function loss. Boys older than one year with urinary tract infections should be managed in the same way as younger children. In older girls examination of the urinary tract is indicated after recurrent infection. In adult women with complaints of urinary tract infection causes like vaginitis, pyelonephritis and genital herpes should be excluded. Urine is examined (nitrite test, if negative followed by urinary sediment) to confirm the diagnosis. A urine culture is not indicated. First-choice treatment for uncomplicated infection is trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin. Persistent infection may be treated blind with a second antimicrobial drug. Recurrent infection can be prevented by changing behaviour, antimicrobial prophylaxis or oestrogen cream in postmenopausal women. If a man with micturition complaints also suffers from pain in the perineum, the lower back or the lower abdomen or during ejaculation, a distinction should be made between bacterial prostatitis, non-bacterial prostatitis and prostatodynia. Uncomplicated urinary infections can be treated with trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin. Urinary catheters are a risk for infection and their use should be restricted in number and duration. Catheter care should follow the guidelines of the Workgroup Infection Prevention. Urinary cultures should only be made in the presence of signs of infection if there is an indication for antimicrobial therapy.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Comment

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Contraindications
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Netherlands
  • Nitrofurantoin / therapeutic use
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / diagnosis
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / therapy
  • Trimethoprim / therapeutic use
  • Urinalysis
  • Urinary Catheterization*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / diagnosis*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / drug therapy
  • Urinary Tract Infections / microbiology
  • Urinary Tract Infections / therapy*


  • Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary
  • Nitrofurantoin
  • Trimethoprim