An amphotericin B (AmB)-resistant mutant was isolated from a wild-type AmB-susceptible strain of Aspergillus flavus by serial transfer of conidia on agar plates containing stepwise increased concentrations of AmB up to 100 microg ml-1. The acquired resistance of mycelia was specific for polyene-antibiotics AmB, nystatin and trichomycin. Spheroplasts derived from the resistant mycelia were as susceptible to AmB as the wild-type. Chemical analysis of the cell wall revealed that levels of alkali-soluble and -insoluble glucans were significantly higher in the resistant mycelia as compared to those in the wild-type. When resistant mycelia were treated with SDS, they adsorbed as much AmB as wild-type mycelia. These results suggest that alterations in the cell wall components of mycelia, especially 1,3-alpha-glucan and protein complex in the outermost wall layer, lead to AmB resistance in A. flavus.