Cross-species reciprocal chromosome painting was used to delineate homologous chromosomal segments between domestic dog, red fox, and human. Whole sets of chromosome-specific painting probes for the red fox and dog were made by PCR amplification of flow-sorted chromosomes from established cell cultures. Based on their hybridization patterns, a complete comparative chromosome map of the three species has been built. Thirty-nine of the 44 synteny groups from the published radiation hybrid map and 33 of the 40 linkage groups in the linkage map of the dog have been assigned to specific chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization and PCR-based genotyping. Each canine chromosome has at least one DNA marker assigned to it. The human-canid map shows that the canid karyotypes are among the most extensively rearranged karyotypes in mammals. Twenty-two human autosomal paints delineated 73 homologous regions on 38 canine autosomes, while paints from 38 dog autosomes detected 90 homologous segments in the human genome. Of the 22 human autosomes, only the syntenies of three chromosomes (14, 20, and 21) have been maintained intact in the canid genome. The dog-fox map and DAPI banding comparison demonstrate that the remarkable karyotype differences between fox (2n = 34 + 0-8 Bs) and dog (2n = 78) are due to 26 chromosomal fusion events and 4 fission events. It is proposed that the more easily karyotyped fox chromosomes can be used as a common reference and control system for future gene mapping in the DogMap project and CGH analysis of canine tumor DNA.
Copyright 1999 Academic Press.