Video monitoring studies were undertaken to determine if the anticonvulsant, carbamazepine (CBZ), could prevent seizures in infant rats that had been intrahippocampally injected with tetanus toxin (TNTX). In control rats, seizure frequency peaked 5-6 days after injection and rapidly declined by postinjection day 9. Twice-daily CBZ treatments dramatically suppressed behavioral seizures for 7 days. However, despite increasing the dosage of CBZ, rats experienced more behavioral seizures during the second week after TNTX injection. Paradoxically, tetanus-toxin-injected control rats had very few seizures at this time. Results not only suggest that this TNTX model may be useful in screening drugs for treating intractable focal epilepsy of infancy but also provide some insight into the processes that may contribute to the rapid decline in behavioral seizure frequency that occurs during the acute phase of epileptogenesis in this model.