Neuropeptides of the cockroach allatostatin (AST) family are known for their ability to inhibit the production of juvenile hormone by the corpora allata of cockroaches. Since their discovery, they have also been shown to modulate myotropic activity in a range of insect species as well as to act as neurotransmitters in Crustaceans and possibly in insects. The midgut of cockroaches contains numerous endocrine cells, some of which produce AST whereas others produce the FMRFamide-related peptide, leucomyosuppressin (LMS). We have determined if ASTs and LMS are also able to influence carbohydrate-metabolizing enzyme activity in the midgut of the cockroach, Diploptera punctata. Dippu-AST 7 stimulates activity of both invertase and alpha-amylase in a dose-dependent fashion in the lumen contents of ligatured midguts in vitro, but not in midgut tissue, whereas the AST analog AST(b)phi2, a cyclopropyl-ala, hydrocinnamic acid analog of Dippu-AST 6, has no effect. Leucomyosuppressin also stimulates enzyme activity in lumen contents only, although the EC50 is considerably greater than for Dippu-AST. Dippu-AST is also able to inhibit proctolin-induced contractions of midgut muscle, and this action had already been described for LMS . Thus, in this organ, AST and LMS have at least two distinct physiological effects.