Field efficacy and nontarget effects of the mosquito larvicides temephos, methoprene, and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in Florida mangrove swamps

J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1999 Dec;15(4):446-52.


We compared the efficacy and nontarget effects of temephos, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (B.t.i.), and methoprene applied by helicopter to control mosquito larvae in mangrove swamps on Sanibel Island, FL, in May 1997. Three sites per treatment and 3 untreated sites were used. Temephos (Abate) was applied at 37 ml/ha (43% active ingredient [AI]), B.t.i. granules (Vectobac G) were applied at 5.606 kg/ha (200 International Toxic Units/mg), and methoprene (Altosid ALL) was applied at 213 ml/ha (5% AI). Efficacy was quantified by monitoring the survival of caged and uncaged larval Aedes taeniorhynchus. We quantified mortality of sentinel nontarget amphipods (Talitridae) at all sites, monitored the effect of temephos on flying arthropods using light traps, and collected dead insects in tarps suspended under mangroves in areas treated with either temephos or methoprene. Each pesticide showed good overall efficacy but occasional failures occurred. No detectable mortality of amphipods or flying insects attributable to pesticides was found. The inconsistent field efficacies of the pesticides indicate a need for reinspection of treated sites in this habitat.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aedes*
  • Animals
  • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Decapoda / drug effects
  • Environment
  • Florida
  • Insecticides / toxicity*
  • Larva / drug effects
  • Methoprene / toxicity*
  • Mosquito Control*
  • Temefos / toxicity*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity


  • Insecticides
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Methoprene
  • Temefos