FMRFamide-related neuropeptide gene family in Caenorhabditis elegans

Brain Res. 1999 Nov 27;848(1-2):26-34. doi: 10.1016/s0006-8993(99)01972-1.


Neuropeptides are used as signaling molecules in the nervous system of most organisms, including mammals. The family of FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2)-like neuropeptides (FaRPs) all share an RFamide sequence at their C-termini and have been shown to have diverse functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, FMRFamide-like peptides (FaRPs) are expressed in at least 10% of the neurons, including motor, sensory, and interneurons that are involved in movement, feeding, defecation, and reproduction. Twenty-two genes, designated flp-1 through flp-22, encode FaRPs in C. elegans, although there are likely to be additional flp genes to be identified. Each flp gene encodes a different set of FaRPs, yielding a predicted total of 59 distinct FaRPs; a few of the genes may also encode non-FaRPs. Inactivation of some of the flp genes indicates that at least one flp gene has unique functions, while at least two flp genes appear to have overlapping functions with other flp genes. These results suggest that a complex family of FaRPs have varied roles through all stages of development and in adulthood in C. elegans.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / genetics*
  • FMRFamide / genetics*


  • FMRFamide