During mitosis, 2 centrosomes ensure accurate assembly of bipolar spindles and fidelity of the chromosomal segregation. The presence of more than 2 copies of centrosomes during mitosis can result in the formation of multipolar spindles, unbalanced chromosome segregation, and aneuploidy. Recent studies have provided evidence that centrosome hyperamplification plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. Using immunofluorescence analysis with gamma-tubulin and pericentrin antibodies, paraffin-embedded sections from 40 malignant biliary diseases including gallbladder cancers (GC; n = 13), intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC; n = 19), and extrahepatic bile duct cancers (BDC; n = 8) were examined. Thirty-seven benign biliary diseases including chronic cholecystitis, gallbladder adenoma, hepatolithiasis, and choledochal cyst were included as benign controls. The frequencies of the centrosome abnormalities were 70% for GC, 58% for CCC, and 50% for BDC, respectively. The frequencies of centrosome abnormalities in malignant biliary diseases were significantly higher than in their benign counterparts (GC, CCC, BDC; P =.001,.002, and.001, respectively). The results of current study also indicated that biliary malignancy in the advanced stage (III-IV) displayed a higher frequency of centrosome abnormalities than in the early stage (I-II) (P <.001). We conclude that abnormalities in size, number, and shape of the centrosome are frequently observed in biliary tract malignancy. Centrosome abnormalities started to occur in the early stage of biliary malignancy and became very frequent in the advanced stage. This implies that centrosome abnormality might relate to the transition from early to advanced malignancy in biliary malignancy.