Improved clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with coronary endarterectomy

Ann Thorac Surg. 1999 Dec;68(6):2273-8. doi: 10.1016/s0003-4975(99)01050-4.

Abstract

Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with coronary endarterectomy (CE) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We sought to evaluate the impact of recent advances in operative and perioperative management on outcomes after CE.

Methods: One hundred fifty-one consecutive patients undergoing first-time CABG with CE between 1991 and 1997 were compared with a concurrent group of 757 patients undergoing CABG without CE (Control).

Results: Age, gender, left ventricular ejection fraction, percent nonelective were similar in both groups. Compared with control, the CE group had a higher incidence of hypertension (80% versus 71%, p = 0.02), diabetes (42% versus 32%, p = 0.01), prior myocardial infarction (MI) (68% versus 59%, p = 0.05), peripheral vascular disease (36% versus 16%, p < 0.001), renal failure (15% versus 4%, p < 0.001), and three-vessel coronary disease (81% versus 70%, p = 0.007), resulting in higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons database predicted mortality (4.9+/-5.9% versus 3.9+/-4.6%, p = 0.05). Despite the higher risk profile of the CE group, hospital mortality (CE 2.0%, Control 1.2%) and the incidence of major complications such as cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (0.7% versus 1.5%), major respiratory complications (8% versus 5%), and postoperative MI (3% versus 1.4%) were similar between the groups (all p = NS). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time was an independent predictor of postoperative MI (odds ratio 1.2, CI 1.05 to 1.39, p < 0.01) and the use of heparin-bonded cardiopulmonary bypass circuits of reduced MI rate (odds ratio 0.25, CI 0.08 to 0.76, p < 0.01). Mean follow-up for 94% of patients was 30+/-19 months (range 1 to 83 months). Five-year survival after CE was 70+/-5%, with 96% of patients in Canadian Cardiovascular Society class I/II.

Conclusions: In a contemporary series of carefully selected patients, mortality and major complications after CE are now similar to CABG without CE. CE itself is not an independent predictor of postoperative MI. Functional class of hospital survivors is excellent.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Coronary Artery Bypass* / adverse effects
  • Coronary Vessels / surgery*
  • Endarterectomy* / adverse effects
  • Endarterectomy* / mortality
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Myocardial Infarction / etiology
  • Odds Ratio
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate