The Wnt signalling pathway is conserved in various species from worms to mammals, and plays important roles in development, cellular proliferation, and differentiation. The molecular mechanisms by which the Wnt signal regulates cellular functions are becoming increasingly well understood. Wnt stabilizes cytoplasmic beta-catenin, which stimulates the expression of genes including c-myc, c-jun, fra-1, and cyclin D1. Axin, newly recognized as a component of the Wnt signalling pathway, negatively regulates this pathway. Other components of the Wnt signalling pathway, including Dvl, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, beta-catenin, and adenomatous polyposis coli, interact with Axin, and the phosphorylation and stability of beta-catenin are regulated in the Axin complex. Thus, Axin acts as a scaffold protein in the Wnt signalling pathway, thereby regulating cellular functions.