Background: Dependency in activities of daily living (ADLs) is a reality within nursing homes, and we describe ADL measurement strategies based on items in the Minimum Data Set (MDS) and the creation and distributional properties of three ADL self-performance scales and their relationship to other measures.
Methods: Information drawn from four data sets for a multistep analysis was guided by four study objectives: (1) to identify the subcomponents of ADLs that are present in the MDS battery; (2) to demonstrate how these items could be aggregated within hierarchical and additive ADL summary scales; (3) to describe the baseline and longitudinal distributional properties of these scales in a large, seven-state MDS database; and (4) to evaluate how these scales relate to two external criteria.
Results: Prevalence and factor structure findings for seven MDS ADL self-performance variables suggest that these items can be placed into early, middle, and late loss ADL components. Two types of summary ADL self-performance measures were created: additive and hierarchical. Distributional properties of these scales are described, as is their relationship to two external ADL criteria that have been reported in prior studies: first as an independent variable predicting staff time involved in resident care; second as a dependent variable in a study of the efficacy of two programs to improve resident functioning.
Conclusions: The new ADL summary scales, based on readily available MDS data, should prove useful to clinicians, program auditors, and researchers who use the MDS functional self-performance items to determine a resident's ADL status.