The effect of 8.15-18 GHz (1 Hz within) microwave radiation at a power density of 1 microW/cm2 on the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production and immune response was tested. A single 5 h whole-body exposure induced a significant increase in TNF production in peritoneal macrophages and splenic T cells. The mitogenic response in T lymphocytes increased after microwave exposure. The activation of cellular immunity was observed within 3 days after exposure. The diet containing lipid-soluble nutrients (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ubiquinone Q9) increased the activity of macrophages and T cells from irradiated mice. These results demonstrate that irradiation with low-power density microwaves stimulates the immune potential of macrophages and T cells, and the antioxidant treatment enhances the effect of microwaves, in particular at later terms, when the effect of irradiation is reduced.