The selective bradykinin analogue, RMP-7, transiently increases the permeability of the blood brain barrier and the delivery of hydrophilic agents into brain tumours. In 87 recurrent glioma patients (WHO Grade III/IV, median age 46, Karnofsky 70%) clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) responses to i.v. cycles (q 28 days) of RMP-7 (300 ng/kg given as a 10 min infusion) and carboplatin (AUC 4-9) were assessed. 45 of these patients were chemotherapy naive (CN-RMP) and 42 had received one prior course of chemotherapy (CP-RMP). Neurological impairment, performance status and steroid use were measured prior to dosing at each cycle and tumour volume by 3-D MRI at the end of cycles 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12. Clinical evaluation of response demonstrated that 61% of CN-RMP patients were either stable or improved whilst this was 39% for CP-RMP patients, of which 37% and 8% improved respectively. Radiological evaluation showed 79% of CN-RMP patients were either stable, partial or complete responses and 24% for CP-RMP patients, of which 32% and 5% were CR or PR respectively. The median duration of response was 30.3 weeks in CN-RMP patients and 19.6 weeks in the CP-RMP group. Lack of response was associated with substantial baseline tumour volume. Drug toxicity was as previously reported for carboplatin. 11 patients had treatment-associated transient focal seizures. These results indicate that RMP-7 and carboplatin have significant activity in recurrent malignant glioma following radiotherapy.