We analyzed >70 recent data sets to compare the serogroups causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) with those represented in conjugate vaccine formulations. Five to 8 and 10-11 serogroups comprise at least 75% of pneumococcal isolates from young children and older children/adults, respectively, in each geographic region. Serogroups in the 7-valent formulation (4, 6, 9, 14, 18, 19, and 23) cause 70%-88% of IPD in young children in the United States and Canada, Oceania, Africa, and Europe, and <65% in Latin America and Asia. Serogroups in the 9-valent formulation (7-valent+1, 5) cause 80%-90% of IPD in each region except Asia (66%). Serogroup 1 accounts for >6% of IPD in each region, including Europe, except the United States and Canada and Oceania. In contrast, several serogroups not found in 7-, 9-, and 11-valent conjugate formulations are significant causes of disease in older children/adults. Nevertheless, each conjugate formulation could prevent a substantial IPD burden in each region and age group.