Is high peritoneal transport rate an independent risk factor for CAPD mortality?
Background: Patients with high peritoneal transport display the lowest serum albumin (SAlb) and the highest peritoneal protein loss. An association between high peritoneal membrane permeability and diabetes mellitus (DM) has been suggested. As malnutrition, hypoalbuminemia, and DM cause high mortality, it is probable that a high peritoneal transport rate is associated with high mortality on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The aim of the study was to identify whether a high peritoneal transport rate is an independent risk factor for mortality on CAPD.
Methods: We included 167 patients with a peritoneal equilibration test that was performed between January 1994 and July 1997. The endpoint was the patient's status (alive, dead, or lost) in December 1997. Survival analysis was done by the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox proportional-hazard model.
Results: DM was significantly more frequent in the high (H) peritoneal transport type (20 out of 33) and was less frequent in the low (L) transport group (3 out of 18). SAlb (g/dL) was significantly lower as the peritoneal transport type was higher [H 2.7 +/- 0.5, high average (HA) 2.9 +/- 0.7, low average (LA) 3.2 +/- 0.6, and L 3.6 +/- 0.5]. Serum creatinine (SCr) was significantly higher in the L transport type (12.0 +/- 4.3 mg/dL) than in the other transport groups (H 8.7 +/- 3.1, HA 8.6 +/- 3.7, and LA 9.6 +/- 4.5). No other differences were found between peritoneal transport types. In the univariate analysis, high peritoneal transport rate, DM, low SCr, low SAlb, and older age significantly predicted mortality. However, in the multivariate analysis (chi2 = 40.55, P < 0.0001), only DM (b = 1.34, P = 0.0001), low SCr (b = -0.11, P = 0.02), and high peritoneal transport rate (b = 2.6, P = 0.06) were shown as mortality risk factors.
Conclusions: DM was the most important risk factor for mortality on CAPD. A high peritoneal transport rate also predicted mortality, yet its role seems to be related to the presence of DM. The role of higher SCr predicting a better survival might have been associated with a better nutritional status. Hypoalbuminemia, previously shown as risk factor for mortality, did not play an important role in this study, probably because of its collinearity with DM.