The appearance of oxygen on earth led to two major problems: the production of potentially deleterious reactive oxygen species and a drastic decrease in iron availability. In addition, iron, in its reduced form, potentiates oxygen toxicity by converting, via the Fenton reaction, the less reactive hydrogen peroxide to the more reactive oxygen species, hydroxyl radical and ferryl iron. Conversely superoxide, by releasing iron from iron-containing molecules, favors the Fenton reaction. It has been assumed that the strict regulation of iron assimilation prevents an excess of free intracellular iron that could lead to oxidative stress. Studies in bacteria supporting that view are reviewed. While genetic studies correlate oxidative stress with increase of intracellular free iron, there are only few and sometimes contradictory studies on direct measurements of free intracellular metal. Despite this weakness, the strict regulation of iron metabolism, and its coupling with regulation of defenses against oxidative stress, as well as the role played by iron in regulatory protein in sensing redox change, appear as essential factors for life in the presence of oxygen.
Copyright 2000 Academic Press.